Documentation

Influx Query Language (InfluxQL) 2.x specification

This page documents an earlier version of InfluxDB. InfluxDB v2.5 is the latest stable version. View this page in the v2.5 documentation.

InfluxQL is a SQL-like query language used to interact with InfluxDB and work with your times series data.

Find Influx Query Language (InfluxQL) definitions and details, including:

To learn more about InfluxQL, browse the following topics:

Notation

The syntax is specified using Extended Backus-Naur Form (“EBNF”). EBNF is the same notation used in the Go programming language specification, which can be found here.

Production  = production_name "=" [ Expression ] "." .
Expression  = Alternative { "|" Alternative } .
Alternative = Term { Term } .
Term        = production_name | token [ "…" token ] | Group | Option | Repetition .
Group       = "(" Expression ")" .
Option      = "[" Expression "]" .
Repetition  = "{" Expression "}" .

Notation operators in order of increasing precedence:

|   alternation
()  grouping
[]  option (0 or 1 times)
{}  repetition (0 to n times)

Query representation

Characters

InfluxQL is Unicode text encoded in UTF-8.

newline             = /* the Unicode code point U+000A */ .
unicode_char        = /* an arbitrary Unicode code point except newline */ .

Letters and digits

Letters are the set of ASCII characters plus the underscore character _ (U+005F) is considered a letter.

Only decimal digits are supported.

letter              = ascii_letter | "_" .
ascii_letter        = "A" … "Z" | "a" … "z" .
digit               = "0" … "9" .

Identifiers

Identifiers are tokens which refer to database names, retention policy names, user names, measurement names, tag keys, and field keys.

The rules:

  • double quoted identifiers can contain any unicode character other than a new line
  • double quoted identifiers can contain escaped " characters (i.e., \")
  • double quoted identifiers can contain InfluxQL keywords
  • unquoted identifiers must start with an upper or lowercase ASCII character or “_”
  • unquoted identifiers may contain only ASCII letters, decimal digits, and “_”
identifier          = unquoted_identifier | quoted_identifier .
unquoted_identifier = ( letter ) { letter | digit } .
quoted_identifier   = `"` unicode_char { unicode_char } `"` .

Examples

cpu
_cpu_stats
"1h"
"anything really"
"1_Crazy-1337.identifier>NAMEπŸ‘"

Keywords

ALL           ALTER         ANY           AS            ASC           BEGIN
BY            CREATE        CONTINUOUS    DATABASE      DATABASES     DEFAULT
DELETE        DESC          DESTINATIONS  DIAGNOSTICS   DISTINCT      DROP
DURATION      END           EVERY         EXPLAIN       FIELD         FOR
FROM          GRANT         GRANTS        GROUP         GROUPS        IN
INF           INSERT        INTO          KEY           KEYS          KILL
LIMIT         SHOW          MEASUREMENT   MEASUREMENTS  NAME          OFFSET
ON            ORDER         PASSWORD      POLICY        POLICIES      PRIVILEGES
QUERIES       QUERY         READ          REPLICATION   RESAMPLE      RETENTION
REVOKE        SELECT        SERIES        SET           SHARD         SHARDS
SLIMIT        SOFFSET       STATS         SUBSCRIPTION  SUBSCRIPTIONS TAG
TO            USER          USERS         VALUES        WHERE         WITH
WRITE

If you use an InfluxQL keywords as an identifier you will need to double quote that identifier in every query.

The keyword time is a special case. time can be a database name, measurement name, retention policy name, subscription name, and user name. In those cases, time does not require double quotes in queries. time cannot be a field key or tag key; InfluxDB rejects writes with time as a field key or tag key and returns an error. See Frequently Asked Questions for more information.

Literals

Integers

InfluxQL supports decimal integer literals. Hexadecimal and octal literals are not currently supported.

int_lit             = ( "1" … "9" ) { digit } .

Floats

InfluxQL supports floating-point literals. Exponents are not currently supported.

float_lit           = int_lit "." int_lit .

Strings

String literals must be surrounded by single quotes. Strings may contain ' characters as long as they are escaped (i.e., \').

string_lit          = `'` { unicode_char } `'` .

Durations

Duration literals specify a length of time. An integer literal followed immediately (with no spaces) by a duration unit listed below is interpreted as a duration literal. Durations can be specified with mixed units.

Duration units
UnitsMeaning
nsnanoseconds (1 billionth of a second)
u or Β΅microseconds (1 millionth of a second)
msmilliseconds (1 thousandth of a second)
ssecond
mminute
hhour
dday
wweek
duration_lit        = int_lit duration_unit .
duration_unit       = "ns" | "u" | "Β΅" | "ms" | "s" | "m" | "h" | "d" | "w" .

Dates & Times

The date and time literal format is not specified in EBNF like the rest of this document. It is specified using Go’s date / time parsing format, which is a reference date written in the format required by InfluxQL. The reference date time is:

InfluxQL reference date time: January 2nd, 2006 at 3:04:05 PM

time_lit            = "2006-01-02 15:04:05.999999" | "2006-01-02" .

Booleans

bool_lit            = TRUE | FALSE .

Regular Expressions

regex_lit           = "/" { unicode_char } "/" .

Comparators: =~ matches against !~ doesn’t match against

NOTE: InfluxQL supports using regular expressions when specifying:

Currently, InfluxQL does not support using regular expressions to match non-string field values in the WHERE clause, databases, and retention polices.

Queries

A query is composed of one or more statements separated by a semicolon.

query               = statement { ";" statement } .

statement           = delete_stmt |
                      drop_measurement_stmt |
                      explain_stmt |
                      explain_analyze_stmt |
                      select_stmt |
                      show_databases_stmt |
                      show_field_key_cardinality_stmt |
                      show_field_keys_stmt |
                      show_measurement_exact_cardinality_stmt |
                      show_measurements_stmt |
                      show_series_exact_cardinality_stmt |
                      show_series_stmt |
                      show_tag_key_cardinality_stmt |
                      show_tag_key_exact_cardinality_stmt |
                      show_tag_keys_stmt |
                      show_tag_values_with_key = stmt |
                      show_tag_values_cardinality_stmt .

Statements

DELETE

delete_stmt = "DELETE" ( from_clause | where_clause | from_clause where_clause ) .

Examples

DELETE FROM "cpu"
DELETE FROM "cpu" WHERE time < '2000-01-01T00:00:00Z'
DELETE WHERE time < '2000-01-01T00:00:00Z'

DROP MEASUREMENT

drop_measurement_stmt = "DROP MEASUREMENT" measurement .

Examples

-- drop the cpu measurement
DROP MEASUREMENT "cpu"

EXPLAIN

Parses and plans the query, and then prints a summary of estimated costs.

Many SQL engines use the EXPLAIN statement to show join order, join algorithms, and predicate and expression pushdown. Since InfluxQL does not support joins, the cost of a InfluxQL query is typically a function of the total series accessed, the number of iterator accesses to a TSM file, and the number of TSM blocks that need to be scanned.

The elements of EXPLAIN query plan include:

  • expression
  • auxillary fields
  • number of shards
  • number of series
  • cached values
  • number of files
  • number of blocks
  • size of blocks
explain_stmt = "EXPLAIN" select_stmt .

Example

> explain select sum(pointReq) from "_internal"."monitor"."write" group by hostname;
> QUERY PLAN
------
EXPRESSION: sum(pointReq::integer)
NUMBER OF SHARDS: 2
NUMBER OF SERIES: 2
CACHED VALUES: 110
NUMBER OF FILES: 1
NUMBER OF BLOCKS: 1
SIZE OF BLOCKS: 931

EXPLAIN ANALYZE

Executes the specified SELECT statement and returns data on the query performance and storage during runtime, visualized as a tree. Use this statement to analyze query performance and storage, including execution time and planning time, and the iterator type and cursor type.

For example, executing the following statement:

> explain analyze select mean(usage_steal) from cpu where time >= '2018-02-22T00:00:00Z' and time < '2018-02-22T12:00:00Z'

May produce an output similar to the following:

EXPLAIN ANALYZE
---------------
.
└── select
    β”œβ”€β”€ execution_time: 2.25823ms
    β”œβ”€β”€ planning_time: 18.381616ms
    β”œβ”€β”€ total_time: 20.639846ms
    └── field_iterators
        β”œβ”€β”€ labels
        β”‚   └── statement: SELECT mean(usage_steal::float) FROM telegraf."default".cpu
        └── expression
            β”œβ”€β”€ labels
            β”‚   └── expr: mean(usage_steal::float)
            └── create_iterator
                β”œβ”€β”€ labels
                β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ measurement: cpu
                β”‚   └── shard_id: 608
                β”œβ”€β”€ cursors_ref: 779
                β”œβ”€β”€ cursors_aux: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ cursors_cond: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ float_blocks_decoded: 431
                β”œβ”€β”€ float_blocks_size_bytes: 1003552
                β”œβ”€β”€ integer_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ integer_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ unsigned_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ unsigned_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ string_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ string_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ boolean_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ boolean_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                └── planning_time: 14.805277ms```

Note: EXPLAIN ANALYZE ignores query output, so the cost of serialization to JSON or CSV is not accounted for.

execution_time

Shows the amount of time the query took to execute, including reading the time series data, performing operations as data flows through iterators, and draining processed data from iterators. Execution time doesn’t include the time taken to serialize the output into JSON or other formats.

planning_time

Shows the amount of time the query took to plan. Planning a query in InfluxDB requires a number of steps. Depending on the complexity of the query, planning can require more work and consume more CPU and memory resources than the executing the query. For example, the number of series keys required to execute a query affects how quickly the query is planned and the required memory.

First, InfluxDB determines the effective time range of the query and selects the shards to access (in InfluxDB Enterprise, shards may be on remote nodes). Next, for each shard and each measurement, InfluxDB performs the following steps:

  1. Select matching series keys from the index, filtered by tag predicates in the WHERE clause.
  2. Group filtered series keys into tag sets based on the GROUP BY dimensions.
  3. Enumerate each tag set and create a cursor and iterator for each series key.
  4. Merge iterators and return the merged result to the query executor.
iterator type

EXPLAIN ANALYZE supports the following iterator types:

  • create_iterator node represents work done by the local influxd instance──a complex composition of nested iterators combined and merged to produce the final query output.
  • (InfluxDB Enterprise only) remote_iterator node represents work done on remote machines.

For more information about iterators, see Understanding iterators.

cursor type

EXPLAIN ANALYZE distinguishes 3 cursor types. While the cursor types have the same data structures and equal CPU and I/O costs, each cursor type is constructed for a different reason and separated in the final output. Consider the following cursor types when tuning a statement:

  • cursor_ref: Reference cursor created for SELECT projections that include a function, such as last() or mean().
  • cursor_aux: Auxiliary cursor created for simple expression projections (not selectors or an aggregation). For example, SELECT foo FROM m or SELECT foo+bar FROM m, where foo and bar are fields.
  • cursor_cond: Condition cursor created for fields referenced in a WHERE clause.

For more information about cursors, see Understanding cursors.

block types

EXPLAIN ANALYZE separates storage block types, and reports the total number of blocks decoded and their size (in bytes) on disk. The following block types are supported:

| float | 64-bit IEEE-754 floating-point number | | integer | 64-bit signed integer | | unsigned | 64-bit unsigned integer | | boolean | 1-bit, LSB encoded | | string | UTF-8 string |

For more information about storage blocks, see TSM files.

SELECT

select_stmt = "SELECT" fields from_clause [ where_clause ]
              [ group_by_clause ] [ order_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ]
              [ offset_clause ] [ slimit_clause ] [ soffset_clause ] [ timezone_clause ] .

Example

Select from measurements grouped by the day with a timezone

SELECT mean("value") FROM "cpu" GROUP BY region, time(1d) fill(0) tz('America/Chicago')

SHOW CARDINALITY

Refers to the group of commands used to estimate or count exactly the cardinality of measurements, series, tag keys, tag key values, and field keys.

The SHOW CARDINALITY commands are available in two variations: estimated and exact. Estimated values are calculated using sketches and are a safe default for all cardinality sizes. Exact values are counts directly from TSM (Time-Structured Merge Tree) data, but are expensive to run for high cardinality data. Unless required, use the estimated variety.

Filtering by time is only supported when Time Series Index (TSI) is enabled on a database.

See the specific SHOW CARDINALITY commands for details:

SHOW DATABASES

show_databases_stmt = "SHOW DATABASES" .

Example

-- show all databases
SHOW DATABASES

SHOW FIELD KEY CARDINALITY

Estimates or counts exactly the cardinality of the field key set for the current database unless a database is specified using the ON <database> option.

Note: ON <database>, FROM <sources>, WITH KEY = <key>, WHERE <condition>, GROUP BY <dimensions>, and LIMIT/OFFSET clauses are optional. When using these query clauses, the query falls back to an exact count. Filtering by time is only supported when Time Series Index (TSI) is enabled and time is not supported in the WHERE clause.

show_field_key_cardinality_stmt = "SHOW FIELD KEY CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ]

show_field_key_exact_cardinality_stmt = "SHOW FIELD KEY EXACT CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ]

Examples

-- show estimated cardinality of the field key set of current database
SHOW FIELD KEY CARDINALITY
-- show exact cardinality on field key set of specified database
SHOW FIELD KEY EXACT CARDINALITY ON mydb

SHOW FIELD KEYS

show_field_keys_stmt = "SHOW FIELD KEYS" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] .

Examples

-- show field keys and field value data types from all measurements
SHOW FIELD KEYS

-- show field keys and field value data types from specified measurement
SHOW FIELD KEYS FROM "cpu"

SHOW MEASUREMENTS

show_measurements_stmt = "SHOW MEASUREMENTS" [on_clause] [ with_measurement_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples

-- show all measurements
SHOW MEASUREMENTS

-- show measurements where region tag = 'uswest' AND host tag = 'serverA'
SHOW MEASUREMENTS WHERE "region" = 'uswest' AND "host" = 'serverA'

-- show measurements that start with 'h2o'
SHOW MEASUREMENTS WITH MEASUREMENT =~ /h2o.*/

SHOW SERIES

show_series_stmt = "SHOW SERIES" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Example

SHOW SERIES FROM "telegraf"."autogen"."cpu" WHERE cpu = 'cpu8'

SHOW SERIES EXACT CARDINALITY

Estimates or counts exactly the cardinality of the series for the current database unless a database is specified using the ON option.

Example

SHOW SERIES EXACT CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ]

SHOW SERIES EXACT CARDINALITY ON mydb
  • Series cardinality is the major factor that affects RAM requirements. For more information, see:

  • Don’t have too many series. As the number of unique series grows, so does the memory usage. High series cardinality can force the host operating system to kill the InfluxDB process with an out of memory (OOM) exception.

NOTE: ON <database>, FROM <sources>, WITH KEY = <key>, WHERE <condition>, GROUP BY <dimensions>, and LIMIT/OFFSET clauses are optional. When using these query clauses, the query falls back to an exact count. Filtering by time is not supported in the WHERE clause.

SHOW TAG KEY CARDINALITY

Estimates or counts exactly the cardinality of tag key set on the current database unless a database is specified using the ON <database> option.

Note: ON <database>, FROM <sources>, WITH KEY = <key>, WHERE <condition>, GROUP BY <dimensions>, and LIMIT/OFFSET clauses are optional. When using these query clauses, the query falls back to an exact count. Filtering by time is only supported when TSI (Time Series Index) is enabled and time is not supported in the WHERE clause.

show_tag_key_cardinality_stmt = "SHOW TAG KEY CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ]

show_tag_key_exact_cardinality_stmt = "SHOW TAG KEY EXACT CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ]

Examples

-- show estimated tag key cardinality
SHOW TAG KEY CARDINALITY
-- show exact tag key cardinality
SHOW TAG KEY EXACT CARDINALITY

SHOW TAG KEYS

show_tag_keys_stmt = "SHOW TAG KEYS" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ]
                     [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples

-- show all tag keys
SHOW TAG KEYS

-- show all tag keys from the cpu measurement
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM "cpu"

-- show all tag keys from the cpu measurement where the region key = 'uswest'
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM "cpu" WHERE "region" = 'uswest'

-- show all tag keys where the host key = 'serverA'
SHOW TAG KEYS WHERE "host" = 'serverA'

SHOW TAG VALUES

show_tag_values_stmt = "SHOW TAG VALUES" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] with_tag_clause [ where_clause ]
                       [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples

-- show all tag values across all measurements for the region tag
SHOW TAG VALUES WITH KEY = "region"

-- show tag values from the cpu measurement for the region tag
SHOW TAG VALUES FROM "cpu" WITH KEY = "region"

-- show tag values across all measurements for all tag keys that do not include the letter c
SHOW TAG VALUES WITH KEY !~ /.*c.*/

-- show tag values from the cpu measurement for region & host tag keys where service = 'redis'
SHOW TAG VALUES FROM "cpu" WITH KEY IN ("region", "host") WHERE "service" = 'redis'

SHOW TAG VALUES CARDINALITY

Estimates or counts exactly the cardinality of tag key values for the specified tag key on the current database unless a database is specified using the ON <database> option.

Note: ON <database>, FROM <sources>, WITH KEY = <key>, WHERE <condition>, GROUP BY <dimensions>, and LIMIT/OFFSET clauses are optional. When using these query clauses, the query falls back to an exact count. Filtering by time is only supported when TSI (Time Series Index) is enabled.

show_tag_values_cardinality_stmt = "SHOW TAG VALUES CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] with_key_clause

show_tag_values_exact_cardinality_stmt = "SHOW TAG VALUES EXACT CARDINALITY" [ on_clause ] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] with_key_clause

Examples

-- show estimated tag key values cardinality for a specified tag key
SHOW TAG VALUES CARDINALITY WITH KEY = "myTagKey"
-- show estimated tag key values cardinality for a specified tag key
SHOW TAG VALUES CARDINALITY WITH KEY = "myTagKey"
-- show exact tag key values cardinality for a specified tag key
SHOW TAG VALUES EXACT CARDINALITY WITH KEY = "myTagKey"
-- show exact tag key values cardinality for a specified tag key
SHOW TAG VALUES EXACT CARDINALITY WITH KEY = "myTagKey"

Clauses

from_clause     = "FROM" measurements .

group_by_clause = "GROUP BY" dimensions fill(fill_option).

limit_clause    = "LIMIT" int_lit .

offset_clause   = "OFFSET" int_lit .

slimit_clause   = "SLIMIT" int_lit .

soffset_clause  = "SOFFSET" int_lit .

timezone_clause = tz(string_lit) .

on_clause       = "ON" db_name .

order_by_clause = "ORDER BY" sort_fields .

where_clause    = "WHERE" expr .

with_measurement_clause = "WITH MEASUREMENT" ( "=" measurement | "=~" regex_lit ) .

with_tag_clause = "WITH KEY" ( "=" tag_key | "!=" tag_key | "=~" regex_lit | "IN (" tag_keys ")"  ) .

Expressions

binary_op        = "+" | "-" | "*" | "/" | "%" | "&" | "|" | "^" | "AND" |
                   "OR" | "=" | "!=" | "<>" | "<" | "<=" | ">" | ">=" .

expr             = unary_expr { binary_op unary_expr } .

unary_expr       = "(" expr ")" | var_ref | time_lit | string_lit | int_lit |
                   float_lit | bool_lit | duration_lit | regex_lit .

Comments

Use comments with InfluxQL statements to describe your queries.

  • A single line comment begins with two hyphens (--) and ends where InfluxDB detects a line break. This comment type cannot span several lines.
  • A multi-line comment begins with /* and ends with */. This comment type can span several lines. Multi-line comments do not support nested multi-line comments.

Other

alias            = "AS" identifier .

back_ref         = ( policy_name ".:MEASUREMENT" ) |
                   ( db_name "." [ policy_name ] ".:MEASUREMENT" ) .

db_name          = identifier .

dimension        = expr .

dimensions       = dimension { "," dimension } .

field_key        = identifier .

field            = expr [ alias ] .

fields           = field { "," field } .

fill_option      = "null" | "none" | "previous" | int_lit | float_lit | "linear" .

host             = string_lit .

measurement      = measurement_name |
                   ( policy_name "." measurement_name ) |
                   ( db_name "." [ policy_name ] "." measurement_name ) .

measurements     = measurement { "," measurement } .

measurement_name = identifier | regex_lit .

policy_name      = identifier .

retention_policy = identifier .

retention_policy_name = "NAME" identifier .

series_id        = int_lit .

sort_field       = field_key [ ASC | DESC ] .

sort_fields      = sort_field { "," sort_field } .

tag_key          = identifier .

tag_keys         = tag_key { "," tag_key } .

var_ref          = measurement .

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