Documentation

JavaScript client library starter

This page documents an earlier version of InfluxDB. InfluxDB v2.5 is the latest stable version.

Follow this step-by-step tutorial to build an Internet-of-Things (IoT) application with InfluxData client libraries and your favorite framework or language.

In this tutorial, you’ll use the InfluxDB API and client libraries to build a modern application as you learn the following:

  • InfluxDB core concepts.
  • How the application interacts with devices and InfluxDB.
  • How to authenticate apps and devices to the API.
  • How to install a client library.
  • How to write and query data in InfluxDB.

Contents

Set up InfluxDB

If you haven’t already, create an InfluxDB Cloud account or install InfluxDB OSS.

Authenticate with an InfluxDB API token

For convenience in development, create an All-Access token for your application. This grants your application full read and write permissions on all resources within your InfluxDB organization.

For a production application, create and use a read-write token with minimal permissions and only use it with your application.

Introducing IoT Starter

The application architecture has four layers:

  • InfluxDB API: InfluxDB v2 API.
  • IoT device: Virtual or physical devices write IoT data to the InfluxDB API.
  • UI: Sends requests to the server and renders views in the browser.
  • API: Receives requests from the UI, sends requests to InfluxDB, and processes responses from InfluxDB.

For the complete code referenced in this tutorial, see the influxdata/iot-api-js repository.

Create the application

Create a directory that will contain your iot-api projects. The following example code creates an iot-api directory in your home directory and changes to the new directory:

mkdir ~/iot-api-apps
cd ~/iot-api-apps

Use Next.js, a framework for full-stack JavaScript applications, to create your application.

  1. In your ~/iot-api-apps directory, open a terminal and enter the following commands to create the iot-api-js app from the NextJS learn-starter template:

    npx create-next-app iot-api-js --use-npm --example "https://github.com/vercel/next-learn/tree/master/basics/learn-starter"
    
  2. After the installation completes, enter the following commands in your terminal to go into your ./iot-api-js directory and start the development server:

    cd iot-api-js
    npm run dev -p 3001
    

To view the application, visit http://localhost:3001 in your browser.

Install InfluxDB client library

The InfluxDB client library provides the following InfluxDB API interactions:

  • Query data with the Flux language.
  • Write data to InfluxDB.
  • Batch data in the background.
  • Retry requests automatically on failure.
  1. Enter the following command into your terminal to install the client library:

    npm i @influxdata/influxdb-client
    
  2. Enter the following command into your terminal to install @influxdata/influxdb-client-apis, the management APIs that create, modify, and delete authorizations, buckets, tasks, and other InfluxDB resources:

    npm i @influxdata/influxdb-client-apis
    

For more information about the client library, see the influxdata/influxdb-client-js repo.

Configure the client library

InfluxDB client libraries require configuration properties from your InfluxDB environment. Typically, you’ll provide the following properties as environment variables for your application:

  • INFLUX_URL
  • INFLUX_TOKEN
  • INFLUX_ORG
  • INFLUX_BUCKET
  • INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH

Next.js uses the env module to provide environment variables to your application.

The ./.env.development file is versioned and contains non-secret default settings for your development environment.

# .env.development

INFLUX_URL=http://localhost:8086
INFLUX_BUCKET=iot_center
INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH=iot_center_devices

To configure secrets and settings that aren’t added to version control, create a ./.env.local file and set the variables–for example, set your InfluxDB token and organization:

# .env.local

# INFLUX_TOKEN
# InfluxDB API token used by the application server to send requests to InfluxDB.
# For convenience in development, use an **All-Access** token.

INFLUX_TOKEN=29Xx1KH9VkASPR2DSfRfFd82OwGD...

# INFLUX_ORG
# InfluxDB organization ID you want to use in development.

INFLUX_ORG=48c88459ee424a04

Enter the following commands into your terminal to restart and load the .env files:

  1. CONTROL+C to stop the application.
  2. npm run dev to start the application.

Next.js sets variables that you can access in the process.env object–for example:

console.log(process.env.INFLUX_ORG)

Build the API

Your application API provides server-side HTTP endpoints that process requests from the UI. Each API endpoint is responsible for the following:

  1. Listen for HTTP requests (from the UI).
  2. Translate requests into InfluxDB API requests.
  3. Process InfluxDB API responses and handle errors.
  4. Respond with status and data (for the UI).

Create the API to list devices

Add the /api/devices API endpoint that retrieves, processes, and lists devices. /api/devices uses the /api/v2/query InfluxDB API endpoint to query INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH for a registered device.

Handle requests for device information

  1. Create a ./pages/api/devices/[[...deviceParams]].js file to handle requests for /api/devices and /api/devices/<deviceId>/measurements/.

  2. In the file, export a Next.js request handler function. See the example.

In Next.js, the filename pattern [[...param]].js creates a catch-all API route. To learn more, see Next.js dynamic API routes.

Retrieve and list devices

Retrieve registered devices in INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH and process the query results.

  1. Create a Flux query that gets the last row of each series that contains a deviceauth measurement. The example query below returns rows that contain the key field (authorization ID) and excludes rows that contain a token field (to avoid exposing tokens to the UI).

    // Flux query finds devices
     from(bucket:`${INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH}`)
          |> range(start: 0)
          |> filter(fn: (r) => r._measurement == "deviceauth" and r._field != "token")
          |> last()
    
  2. Use the QueryApi client to send the Flux query to the POST /api/v2/query InfluxDB API endpoint.

Create a ./pages/api/devices/_devices.js file that contains the following:

import { InfluxDB } from '@influxdata/influxdb-client'
import { flux } from '@influxdata/influxdb-client'

const INFLUX_ORG = process.env.INFLUX_ORG
const INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH = process.env.INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH
const influxdb = new InfluxDB({url: process.env.INFLUX_URL, token: process.env.INFLUX_TOKEN})

/**
 * Gets devices or a particular device when deviceId is specified. Tokens
 * are not returned unless deviceId is specified. It can also return devices
 * with empty/unknown key, such devices can be ignored (InfluxDB authorization is not associated).
 * @param deviceId optional deviceId
 * @returns promise with an Record<deviceId, {deviceId, createdAt, updatedAt, key, token}>.
 */
 export async function getDevices(deviceId) {
  const queryApi = influxdb.getQueryApi(INFLUX_ORG)
  const deviceFilter =
    deviceId !== undefined
      ? flux` and r.deviceId == "${deviceId}"`
      : flux` and r._field != "token"`
  const fluxQuery = flux`from(bucket:${INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH})
    |> range(start: 0)
    |> filter(fn: (r) => r._measurement == "deviceauth"${deviceFilter})
    |> last()`
  const devices = {}

  return await new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    queryApi.queryRows(fluxQuery, {
      next(row, tableMeta) {
        const o = tableMeta.toObject(row)
        const deviceId = o.deviceId
        if (!deviceId) {
          return
        }
        const device = devices[deviceId] || (devices[deviceId] = {deviceId})
        device[o._field] = o._value
        if (!device.updatedAt || device.updatedAt < o._time) {
          device.updatedAt = o._time
        }
      },
      error: reject,
      complete() {
        resolve(devices)
      },
    })
  })
}

The _devices module exports a getDevices(deviceId) function that queries for registered devices, processes the data, and returns a Promise with the result. If you invoke the function as getDevices() (without a deviceId), it retrieves all deviceauth points and returns a Promise with { DEVICE_ID: ROW_DATA }.

To send the query and process results, the getDevices(deviceId) function uses the QueryAPI queryRows(query, consumer) method. queryRows executes the query and provides the Annotated CSV result as an Observable to the consumer. queryRows has the following TypeScript signature:

queryRows(
  query: string | ParameterizedQuery,
  consumer: FluxResultObserver<string[]>
): void

The consumer that you provide must implement the FluxResultObserver interface and provide the following callback functions:

  • next(row, tableMeta): processes the next row and table metadata–for example, to prepare the response.
  • error(error): receives and handles errors–for example, by rejecting the Promise.
  • complete(): signals when all rows have been consumed–for example, by resolving the Promise.

To learn more about Observers, see the RxJS Guide.

Create the API to register devices

In this application, a registered device is a point that contains your device ID, authorization ID, and API token. The API token and authorization permissions allow the device to query and write to INFLUX_BUCKET. In this section, you add the API endpoint that handles requests from the UI, creates an authorization in InfluxDB, and writes the registered device to the INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH bucket. To learn more about API tokens and authorizations, see Manage API tokens

The application API uses the following /api/v2 InfluxDB API endpoints:

  • POST /api/v2/query: to query INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH for a registered device.
  • GET /api/v2/buckets: to get the bucket ID for INFLUX_BUCKET.
  • POST /api/v2/authorizations: to create an authorization for the device.
  • POST /api/v2/write: to write the device authorization to INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH.
  1. Add a ./pages/api/devices/create.js file to handle requests for /api/devices/create.

  2. In the file, export a Next.js request handler function that does the following:

    1. Accept a device ID in the request body.
    2. Query INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH and respond with an error if an authorization exists for the device.
    3. Create an authorization for the device.
    4. Write the device ID and authorization to INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH.
    5. Respond with HTTP 200 when the write request completes.

See the example.

Create an authorization for the device

In this section, you create an authorization with read-write permission to INFLUX_BUCKET and receive an API token for the device. The example below uses the following steps to create the authorization:

  1. Instantiate the AuthorizationsAPI client and BucketsAPI client with the configuration.
  2. Retrieve the bucket ID.
  3. Use the client library to send a POST request to the /api/v2/authorizations InfluxDB API endpoint.

In ./api/devices/create.js, add the following createAuthorization(deviceId) function:

import { InfluxDB } from '@influxdata/influxdb-client'
import { getDevices } from './_devices'
import { AuthorizationsAPI, BucketsAPI } from '@influxdata/influxdb-client-apis'
import { Point } from '@influxdata/influxdb-client'

const INFLUX_ORG = process.env.INFLUX_ORG
const INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH = process.env.INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH
const INFLUX_BUCKET = process.env.INFLUX_BUCKET

const influxdb = new InfluxDB({url: process.env.INFLUX_URL, token: process.env.INFLUX_TOKEN})

/**
 * Creates an authorization for a supplied deviceId
 * @param {string} deviceId client identifier
 * @returns {import('@influxdata/influxdb-client-apis').Authorization} promise with authorization or an error
 */
async function createAuthorization(deviceId) {
  const authorizationsAPI = new AuthorizationsAPI(influxdb)
  const bucketsAPI = new BucketsAPI(influxdb)
  const DESC_PREFIX = 'IoTCenterDevice: '

  const buckets = await bucketsAPI.getBuckets({name: INFLUX_BUCKET, orgID: INFLUX_ORG})
  const bucketId = buckets.buckets[0]?.id
  
  return await authorizationsAPI.postAuthorizations({
    body: {
      orgID: INFLUX_ORG,
      description: DESC_PREFIX + deviceId,
      permissions: [
        {
          action: 'read',
          resource: {type: 'buckets', id: bucketId, orgID: INFLUX_ORG},
        },
        {
          action: 'write',
          resource: {type: 'buckets', id: bucketId, orgID: INFLUX_ORG},
        },
      ],
    },
  })
}

To create an authorization that has read-write permission to INFLUX_BUCKET, you need the bucket ID. To retrieve the bucket ID, createAuthorization(deviceId) calls the BucketsAPI getBuckets function that sends a GET request to the /api/v2/buckets InfluxDB API endpoint. createAuthorization(deviceId) then passes a new authorization in the request body with the following:

  • Bucket ID.
  • Organization ID.
  • Description: IoTCenterDevice: DEVICE_ID.
  • List of permissions to the bucket.

To learn more about API tokens and authorizations, see Manage API tokens.

Next, write the device authorization to a bucket.

Write the device authorization to a bucket

With a device authorization in InfluxDB, write a point for the device and authorization details to INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH. Storing the device authorization in a bucket allows you to do the following:

  • Report device authorization history.
  • Manage devices with and without tokens.
  • Assign the same token to multiple devices.
  • Refresh tokens.

To write a point to InfluxDB, use the InfluxDB client library to send a POST request to the /api/v2/write InfluxDB API endpoint. In ./pages/api/devices/create.js, add the following createDevice(deviceId) function:

/** Creates an authorization for a deviceId and writes it to a bucket */
async function createDevice(deviceId) {
  let device = (await getDevices(deviceId)) || {}
  let authorizationValid = !!Object.values(device)[0]?.key
  if(authorizationValid) {
    console.log(JSON.stringify(device))
    return Promise.reject('This device ID is already registered and has an authorization.')
  } else {
    console.log(`createDeviceAuthorization: deviceId=${deviceId}`)
    const authorization = await createAuthorization(deviceId)
    const writeApi = influxdb.getWriteApi(INFLUX_ORG, INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH, 'ms', {
      batchSize: 2,
    })
    const point = new Point('deviceauth')
      .tag('deviceId', deviceId)
      .stringField('key', authorization.id)
      .stringField('token', authorization.token)
    writeApi.writePoint(point)
    await writeApi.close()
    return
  }
}

createDevice(device_id) takes a device_id and writes data to INFLUX_BUCKET_AUTH in the following steps:

  1. Initialize InfluxDBClient() with url, token, and org values from the configuration.
  2. Initialize a WriteAPI client for writing data to an InfluxDB bucket.
  3. Create a Point.
  4. Use writeApi.writePoint(point) to write the Point to the bucket.

The function writes a point with the following elements:

ElementNameValue
measurementdeviceauth
tagdeviceIddevice ID
fieldkeyauthorization ID
fieldtokenauthorization (API) token

Install and run the UI

influxdata/iot-api-ui is a standalone Next.js React UI that uses your application API to write and query data in InfluxDB. iot-api-ui uses Next.js rewrites to route all requests in the /api/ path to your API.

To install and run the UI, do the following:

  1. In your ~/iot-api-apps directory, clone the influxdata/iot-api-ui repo and go into the iot-api-ui directory–for example:

    cd ~/iot-api-apps
    git clone git@github.com:influxdata/iot-api-ui.git
    cd ./iot-app-ui
    
  2. The ./.env.development file contains default configuration settings that you can edit or override (with a ./.env.local file).

  3. To start the UI, enter the following command into your terminal:

    yarn dev
    

    To view the list and register devices, visit http://localhost:3000/devices in your browser.

To learn more about the UI components, see influxdata/iot-api-ui.


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