InfluxDB Query Language Specification

Warning! This page documents an old version of InfluxDB, which is no longer actively developed. InfluxDB v1.4 is the most recent stable version of InfluxDB.

Introduction

The InfluxDB Query Language (InfluxQL) is a SQL-like query language for interacting with InfluxDB. It has been lovingly crafted to feel familiar to those coming from other SQL or SQL-like environments while providing features specific to storing and analyzing time series data.

Notation

The syntax is specified using Extended Backus-Naur Form (“EBNF”). EBNF is the same notation used in the Go programming language specification, which can be found here.

Production  = production_name "=" [ Expression ] "." .
Expression  = Alternative { "|" Alternative } .
Alternative = Term { Term } .
Term        = production_name | token [ "…" token ] | Group | Option | Repetition .
Group       = "(" Expression ")" .
Option      = "[" Expression "]" .
Repetition  = "{" Expression "}" .

Notation operators in order of increasing precedence:

|   alternation
()  grouping
[]  option (0 or 1 times)
{}  repetition (0 to n times)

Query representation

Characters

InfluxQL is Unicode text encoded in UTF-8.

newline             = /* the Unicode code point U+000A */ .
unicode_char        = /* an arbitrary Unicode code point except newline */ .

Letters and digits

Letters are the set of ASCII characters plus the underscore character _ (U+005F) is considered a letter.

Only decimal digits are supported.

letter              = ascii_letter | "_" .
ascii_letter        = "A" … "Z" | "a" … "z" .
digit               = "0" … "9" .

Identifiers

Identifiers are tokens which refer to database names, retention policy names, user names, measurement names, tag keys, and field names.

The rules:

  • double quoted identifiers can contain any unicode character other than a new line
  • double quoted identifiers can contain escaped " characters (i.e., \")
  • unquoted identifiers must start with an upper or lowercase ASCII character or “_”
  • unquoted identifiers may contain only ASCII letters, decimal digits, and “_”
identifier          = unquoted_identifier | quoted_identifier .
unquoted_identifier = ( letter ) { letter | digit } .
quoted_identifier   = `"` unicode_char { unicode_char } `"` .

Examples:

cpu
_cpu_stats
"1h"
"anything really"
"1_Crazy-1337.identifier>NAME👍"

Keywords

ALL          ALTER        AS           ASC          BEGIN        BY
CREATE       CONTINUOUS   DATABASE     DATABASES    DEFAULT      DELETE
DESC         DROP         DURATION     END          EXISTS       EXPLAIN
FIELD        FROM         GRANT        GROUP        IF           IN
INNER        INSERT       INTO         KEY          KEYS         LIMIT
SHOW         MEASUREMENT  MEASUREMENTS NOT          OFFSET       ON           
ORDER        PASSWORD     POLICY       POLICIES     PRIVILEGES   QUERIES      
QUERY        READ         REPLICATION  RETENTION    REVOKE       SELECT       
SERIES       SERVER       SLIMIT       SOFFSET      TAG          TO         
USER         USERS        VALUES       WHERE        WITH         WRITE

Literals

Integers

InfluxQL supports decimal integer literals. Hexadecimal and octal literals are not currently supported.

int_lit             = ( "1" … "9" ) { digit } .

Floats

InfluxQL supports floating-point literals. Exponents are not currently supported.

float_lit           = int_lit "." int_lit .

Strings

String literals must be surrounded by single quotes. Strings may contain ' characters as long as they are escaped (i.e., \').

string_lit          = `'` { unicode_char } `'`' .

Durations

Duration literals specify a length of time. An integer literal followed immediately (with no spaces) by a duration unit listed below is interpreted as a duration literal.

Duration unit definitions

Units Meaning
u or µ microseconds (1 millionth of a second)
ms milliseconds (1 thousandth of a second)
s second
m minute
h hour
d day
w week
duration_lit        = int_lit duration_unit .
duration_unit       = "u" | "µ" | "ms" | "s" | "m" | "h" | "d" | "w" .

Dates & Times

The date and time literal format is not specified in EBNF like the rest of this document. It is specified using Go’s date / time parsing format, which is a reference date written in the format required by InfluxQL. The reference date time is:

InfluxQL reference date time: January 2nd, 2006 at 3:04:05 PM

time_lit            = "2006-01-02 15:04:05.999999" | "2006-01-02"

Booleans

bool_lit            = TRUE | FALSE .

Regular Expressions

regex_lit           = "/" { unicode_char } "/" .

Queries

A query is composed of one or more statements separated by a semicolon.

query               = statement { ; statement } .

statement           = alter_retention_policy_stmt |
                      create_continuous_query_stmt |
                      create_database_stmt |
                      create_retention_policy_stmt |
                      create_user_stmt |
                      drop_continuous_query_stmt |
                      drop_database_stmt |
                      drop_measurement_stmt |
                      drop_retention_policy_stmt |
                      drop_series_stmt |
                      drop_user_stmt |
                      grant_stmt |
                      show_continuous_queries_stmt |
                      show_databases_stmt |
                      show_field_keys_stmt |
                      show_measurements_stmt |
                      show_retention_policies |
                      show_series_stmt |
                      show_shards_stmt |
                      show_tag_keys_stmt |
                      show_tag_values_stmt |
                      show_users_stmt |
                      revoke_stmt |
                      select_stmt .

Statements

ALTER RETENTION POLICY

alter_retention_policy_stmt  = "ALTER RETENTION POLICY" policy_name "ON"
                               db_name retention_policy_option
                               [ retention_policy_option ]
                               [ retention_policy_option ] .

db_name                      = identifier .

policy_name                  = identifier .

retention_policy_option      = retention_policy_duration |
                               retention_policy_replication |
                               "DEFAULT" .

retention_policy_duration    = "DURATION" duration_lit .
retention_policy_replication = "REPLICATION" int_lit

Examples:

-- Set default retention policy for mydb to 1h.cpu.
ALTER RETENTION POLICY "1h.cpu" ON mydb DEFAULT

-- Change duration and replication factor.
ALTER RETENTION POLICY policy1 ON somedb DURATION 1h REPLICATION 4

CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY

create_continuous_query_stmt = "CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY" query_name "ON" db_name
                               "BEGIN" select_stmt "END" .

query_name                   = identifier .

Examples:

-- selects from default retention policy and writes into 6_months retention policy
CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY "10m_event_count"
ON db_name
BEGIN
  SELECT count(value)
  INTO "6_months".events
  FROM events
  GROUP BY time(10m)
END

-- this selects from the output of one continuous query in one retention policy and outputs to another series in another retention policy
CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY "1h_event_count"
ON db_name
BEGIN
  SELECT sum(count) as count
  INTO "2_years".events
  FROM "6_months".events
  GROUP BY time(1h)
END

CREATE DATABASE

create_database_stmt = "CREATE DATABASE" db_name

Example:

CREATE DATABASE foo

CREATE RETENTION POLICY

create_retention_policy_stmt = "CREATE RETENTION POLICY" policy_name "ON"
                               db_name retention_policy_duration
                               retention_policy_replication
                               [ "DEFAULT" ] .

Examples

-- Create a retention policy.
CREATE RETENTION POLICY "10m.events" ON somedb DURATION 10m REPLICATION 2

-- Create a retention policy and set it as the default.
CREATE RETENTION POLICY "10m.events" ON somedb DURATION 10m REPLICATION 2 DEFAULT

CREATE USER

create_user_stmt = "CREATE USER" user_name "WITH PASSWORD" password
                   [ "WITH ALL PRIVILEGES" ] .

Note: Unlike the GRANT statement, the “PRIVILEGES” keyword is required in the CREATE USER statement.

Examples:

-- Create a normal database user.
CREATE USER jdoe WITH PASSWORD '1337password'

-- Create a cluster admin.
CREATE USER jdoe WITH PASSWORD '1337password' WITH ALL PRIVILEGES

DROP CONTINUOUS QUERY

drop_continuous_query_stmt = "DROP CONTINUOUS QUERY" query_name "ON" db_name.

Example:

DROP CONTINUOUS QUERY myquery ON mydb

DROP DATABASE

drop_database_stmt = "DROP DATABASE" db_name .

Example:

DROP DATABASE mydb

DROP MEASUREMENT

drop_measurement_stmt = "DROP MEASUREMENT" measurement .

Examples:

-- drop the cpu measurement
DROP MEASUREMENT cpu

DROP RETENTION POLICY

drop_retention_policy_stmt = "DROP RETENTION POLICY" policy_name "ON" db_name .

Example:

-- drop the retention policy named 1h.cpu from mydb
DROP RETENTION POLICY "1h.cpu" ON mydb

DROP SERIES

drop_series_stmt = "DROP SERIES" [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ]

Example:

DROP SERIES FROM cpu WHERE host='server01'

DROP USER

drop_user_stmt = "DROP USER" user_name .

Example:

DROP USER jdoe

GRANT

NOTE: Users can be granted privileges on databases that do not exist.

grant_stmt = "GRANT" privilege [ on_clause ] to_clause

Examples:

-- grant cluster admin privileges
GRANT ALL TO jdoe

-- grant read access to a database
GRANT READ ON mydb TO jdoe

SHOW CONTINUOUS QUERIES

show_continuous_queries_stmt = "SHOW CONTINUOUS QUERIES"

Example:

-- show all continuous queries
SHOW CONTINUOUS QUERIES

SHOW DATABASES

show_databases_stmt = "SHOW DATABASES" .

Example:

-- show all databases
SHOW DATABASES

SHOW FIELD

show_field_keys_stmt = "SHOW FIELD KEYS" [ from_clause ] .

Examples:

-- show field keys from all measurements
SHOW FIELD KEYS

-- show field keys from specified measurement
SHOW FIELD KEYS FROM cpu

SHOW MEASUREMENTS

show_measurements_stmt = "SHOW MEASUREMENTS" [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ]
                         [ offset_clause ] .
-- show all measurements
SHOW MEASUREMENTS

-- show measurements where region tag = 'uswest' AND host tag = 'serverA'
SHOW MEASUREMENTS WHERE region = 'uswest' AND host = 'serverA'

SHOW RETENTION POLICIES

show_retention_policies = "SHOW RETENTION POLICIES ON" db_name .

Example:

-- show all retention policies on a database
SHOW RETENTION POLICIES ON mydb

SHOW SERIES

show_series_stmt = "SHOW SERIES" [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ]
                   [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Example:

-- show all series on a database
SHOW SERIES

-- show series from cpu_user where cpu = 'cpu5'
SHOW SERIES FROM cpu_user WHERE cpu='cpu6'

SHOW show_shards_stmt

show_shards_stmt = "SHOW SHARDS"

Example:

SHOW SHARDS

SHOW TAG KEYS

show_tag_keys_stmt = "SHOW TAG KEYS" [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ group_by_clause ]
                     [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples:

-- show all tag keys
SHOW TAG KEYS

-- show all tag keys from the cpu measurement
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM cpu

-- show all tag keys from the cpu measurement where the region key = 'uswest'
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM cpu WHERE region = 'uswest'

-- show all tag keys where the host key = 'serverA'
SHOW TAG KEYS WHERE host = 'serverA'

SHOW TAG VALUES

show_tag_values_stmt = "SHOW TAG VALUES" [ from_clause ] with_tag_clause [ where_clause ]
                       [ group_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples:

-- show all tag values across all measurements for the region tag
SHOW TAG VALUES WITH KEY = 'region'

-- show tag values from the cpu measurement for the region tag
SHOW TAG VALUES FROM cpu WITH KEY = 'region'

-- show tag values from the cpu measurement for region & host tag keys where service = 'redis'
SHOW TAG VALUES FROM cpu WITH KEY IN (region, host) WHERE service = 'redis'

SHOW USERS

show_users_stmt = "SHOW USERS" .

Example:

-- show all users
SHOW USERS

REVOKE

revoke_stmt = "REVOKE" privilege [ "ON" db_name ] "FROM" user_name

Examples:

-- revoke cluster admin from jdoe
REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES FROM jdoe

-- revoke read privileges from jdoe on mydb
REVOKE READ ON mydb FROM jdoe

SELECT

select_stmt = "SELECT" fields from_clause [ into_clause ] [ where_clause ]
              [ group_by_clause ] [ order_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ]
              [ offset_clause ] [ slimit_clause ] [ soffset_clause ].

Examples:

-- select mean value from the cpu measurement where region = 'uswest' grouped by 10 minute intervals
SELECT mean(value) FROM cpu WHERE region = 'uswest' GROUP BY time(10m) fill(0)

Clauses

from_clause     = "FROM" measurements .

group_by_clause = "GROUP BY" dimensions fill(<option>).

limit_clause    = "LIMIT" int_lit .

offset_clause   = "OFFSET" int_lit .

slimit_clause    = "SLIMIT" int_lit .

soffset_clause   = "SOFFSET" int_lit .

on_clause       = db_name .

order_by_clause = "ORDER BY" sort_fields .

to_clause       = user_name .

where_clause    = "WHERE" expr .

Expressions

binary_op        = "+" | "-" | "*" | "/" | "AND" | "OR" | "=" | "!=" | "<" |
                   "<=" | ">" | ">=" .

expr             = unary_expr { binary_op unary_expr } .

unary_expr       = "(" expr ")" | var_ref | time_lit | string_lit | int_lit |
                   float_lit | bool_lit | duration_lit | regex_lit .

Other

dimension         = expr .

dimensions        = dimension { "," dimension } .

field            = expr [ alias ] .

fields           = field { "," field } .

measurement      = measurement_name |
                   ( policy_name "." measurement_name ) |
                   ( db_name "." [ policy_name ] "." measurement_name ) .

measurements     = measurement { "," measurement } .

measurement_name = identifier | regex_lit .

password         = identifier .

policy_name      = identifier .

privilege        = "ALL" [ "PRIVILEGES" ] | "READ" | "WRITE" .

series_id        = int_lit .

sort_field       = field_name [ ASC | DESC ] .

sort_fields      = sort_field { "," sort_field } .

user_name        = identifier .